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  • Source: Copyright Aqualog

  • Source: Copyright Aqualog

Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Caudo, One-spot Livebearer)

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A small livebearer that occurs in a number of subspecies that vary in the amount of yellow and black on the fins and body. The most popular form has a golden body and numerous black speckles; this form is known as the "golden" variety or Phalloceros caudimaculatus "Auratus". In the wild though the most common variety is more or less unmarked save for a black oval-shaped spot about halfway along the flank.

The two sexes are very similar, but males are smaller and have the modified anal fin typical of the Poeciliidae.

Phalloceros caudimaculatus is native to South America but has been widely transported elsewhere for use in mosquito control. In some places it has become a pest species, including in Australia where it is known as the "leopardfish".

Fish information (behaviour and breeding):

A peaceful species suitable for the community tank, but very small, so choose tankmates with care.

Feeds on algae and small invertebrates, particularly insect larvae.

Breeding this species can be quite tricky. The parents are predatory and will eat the fry given the chance, so floating plants are essential. Remove the fry and rear in a breeding net or another tank until they are large enough to return to the main aquarium,

Family Group: Livebearers
Distribution Subtropical South America: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay
Temperature 20-24 C
Size Up to 3 cm (males); 5 cm (females)
Water Parameters Hard, alkaline water essential; also does well in brackish water
Water PH 7.5-8.5
Diet Adaptable
Care Level Easy
Water Chemistry More than pH 7 - Alkaline
Sociability Peaceful
Schooling Fish Yes